1. Mitigation of global warming involves taking actions aimed at reducing the extent of global warming. Scientific consensus on global warming together with the fear of climate transitions is leading to increased efforts to develop new technologies and sciences, to address the issue of global warming. At the core of most proposals is the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by reducing energy use and switching to cleaner energy sources. Responding to the challenges of controlling global warming requires fundamental changes in energy production, transportation, industry, government policies, and development strategies around the world. These changes would take time. The challenge today is to manage the impacts that cannot be avoided while taking steps to prevent severe impacts in the future. Some of the mitigating measure is appended below.
a. Forests provide many social, economic and environmental benefits. In addition to timber and paper products, forests provide wildlife habitat, recreational opportunities, prevent soil erosion and flooding, help provide clean air and water and contain tremendous biodiversity. Forests are also an important defense against global climate change. Through the process of photosynthesis, forests produce life-supporting oxygen and consume huge amounts of carbon dioxide, which help the most in mitigation of global warming.
b. Hydro-electric power by means of dams is regarded as a relatively cleaner source of energy because it emits fewer greenhouse gases than thermal power plants. Greenhouse gases contribute to global warming and climate change, and for many environmentalists, the buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is the most important environmental issue.
c. The scientific study of the physical, chemical, and biological aspects of the world oceans is called oceanography. Greater knowledge of climatic variations can be attained to describe how the biological productivity in the sea is controlled. A lot of carbon dioxide could be removed from the atmosphere if significant amounts of carbon dioxide could be sucked up by tiny floating marine plants in the vast oceans. Oceans receive considerable sunlight and have an abundance of the nitrogen and phosphorus compounds that usually support the growth of such plants in the greenish waters of the coastal ocean. In an experiment, sea-water containing dissolved iron was pumped to a small area resulting in growth of small marine plants.
d. One way to keep carbon dioxide emissions from reaching the atmosphere is to preserve and growing more trees. Trees, especially young and fast-growing ones, soak up a great deal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Slowing the rate of deforestation and planting new trees can help in neutralizing the expansion of greenhouse gases. In most cases, the process of carbon capture would involve transporting the gas in compressed form to suitable locations for underground storage. Deep ocean waters could also absorb a great deal of carbon dioxide, although the environmental effects may be harmful to ocean life. The feasibility and environmental effects of these options are under study by international teams.
e. The total worldwide consumption of fossil fuels is increasing by several percent annually. Newer technologies for energy resources may help offset these effects. Significant reductions in carbon dioxide emissions can only be achieved by switching away from fossil-fuel energy sources.
i. Nuclear power plants release no carbon dioxide at all, but nuclear energy is controversial for reasons of safety, security and the high costs of nuclear waste disposal.
ii. Solar Power, Wind Power and Hydrogen Fuel Cells can be alternative means of energy emit no greenhouse gases. These energy sources can be practical and low-polluting alternatives to fossil fuels.Other alternatives include fuels made from plants, such as biodiesel (made from used and new vegetable oil) and ethanol (a plant-based gasoline additive). Use of these fuels can help reduce total carbon dioxide emissions from automobiles. The hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), which uses both an electric motor and a gasoline or diesel engine, emits less carbon dioxide than conventional automobiles.
f. Urban planning also has an effect on use of energy. Inefficient use of land practices have increased infrastructure costs as well as the amount of energy needed for transportation, community services, and buildings. Efficient planning will serve to reduce energy usage and greenhouse gas emissions. Planning and the concentration of housing within walking distance of town centers and transport will reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
g. Emissions from housing are substantial.New buildings using passive solar building design can be made more efficient through the use of insulation, high-efficiency appliances (particularly hot water heaters and furnaces), double or triple glazed gas-filled windows, external window shades, and building orientation and site. Renewable heat sources such as geothermal power and passive solar energy reduce the amount of greenhouse gasses emitted. This saves energy because it cools buildings and reduces the urban heat island effect thus reducing the use of air conditioning.
h. Development of new technologies, such as hydrogen cars, may reduce the consumption of petroleum and emissions of carbon dioxide. A shift from air and transport to electric rail would reduce emissions significantly. Increased use of bio-fuels will also reduce emissions. For electric vehicles, the reduction of carbon emissions will improve further.
i. The population explosion is a fundamental factor that has led to global warming. Proposed measures include improving access to family planning and reproductive health care and information, public awareness about the consequences of continued population growth, and improving access of women to education and economic opportunities.
j. There is a requirement to launch a media campaign at national level through print and electronic media for awareness of the masses regarding hazards of Global Warming and importance of growing trees.
k. Rules and regulations regarding setting up and operation of industries already exist. There is a dire need that industrial sector be forced by the concerned agencies, to follow the rules with letter and spirit regarding environment friendly policies.
2. There is a need to secure our future from the hazards of environmental changes faced by the present world. The mitigation efforts for the reduction of Global Warming would help in making prosperous nation besides a healthy atmosphere for our next generations. The most basic question as to who would take the first step is now beyond discussion due to obvious scenery of consequences. So pro-active policy at each tier is mandatory and should become our moral obligation towards better and prosperous future.
Global Warming is resulting in increased temperatures, drying up water sources, sudden and unpredictable natural calamities; resulting in loss of millions of lives every decade, which should act as a wake-up call and as a group or at an individual level we all must try to adopt applicable mitigation measures and this is only possible if we understand the core issue and severity of its far reaching implications.